Emilio Famy Aguinaldo QSC PLH[d] (22 March 1869[c] – 6 February 1964) is officially recognized as the First President of the Philippines (1899-1901) and led Philippine forces first against Spain in the latter part of the Philippine Revolution (1896-1897), and then in the Spanish-American War (1898), and finally against the United States during the Philippine-American War (1899-1901). He was captured by American forces in 1901, which brought an end to his presidency.
In 1935 Aguinaldo ran unsuccessfully for president of the Philippine Commonwealth against Manuel Quezon. After the Japanese invasion of the Philippines in 1941, he cooperated with the new rulers, even making a radio appeal for the surrender of the American and Filipino forces on Bataan. He was arrested as a collaborator after the Americans returned but was later freed in a general amnesty. He explained his action by saying, “I was just remembering the fight I led. We were outnumbered, too, in constant retreat. I saw my own soldiers die without affecting future events.
The flag of the Katipunan
In 1894, Aguinaldo joined the “Katipunan“, a secret organization led by Andrés Bonifacio, dedicated to the expulsion of the Spanish and independence of the Philippines through armed force.(p77) Aguinaldo used the nom de guerre Magdalo, in honor of Mary Magdalene.(p179) His local chapter of the Katipunan, headed by his cousin Baldomero Aguinaldo, was also called Magdalo.
On January 1, 1895, Aguinaldo became a Freemason, joining Pilar Lodge No. 203, Imus, Cavite. He would later say:
- “The Successful Revolution of 1896 was masonically inspired, masonically led, and masonically executed, and I venture to say that the first Philippine Republic of which I was its humble President, was an achievement we owe largely, to Masonry and the Masons.”
The Katipunan-led Philippine Revolution against the Spanish began in the last week of August 1896 in San Juan del Monte (now part ofMetro Manila).(p176) However, Aguinaldo and other Cavite rebels initially refused to join in the offensive alleging lack of arms. Their absence contributed to the defeat of Katipunan leader Andres Bonifacio’s there. While Bonifacio and other rebels were forced to resort toguerrilla warfare, Aguinaldo and the Cavite rebels won major victories in set-piece battles, temporarily driving the Spanish out of their area.
On 17 February 1897 Aguinaldo and a group of katipuneros defeated Spanish forces led by General Camilo de Polavieja at the Battle of Zapote Bridge in Cavite. The province of Cavite gradually emerged as the Revolution’s hotbed, and the Aguinaldo-led katipuneros had a string of victories there.
Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel Luis Quezón y Molina (August 19, 1878 – August 1, 1944) served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a government of the Philippines (as opposed to other historical states), and is considered by most Filipinos to have been the second president of the Philippines, after Emilio Aguinaldo (1897–1901).
Quezón was the first Senate president elected to the presidency, the first president elected through a national election and the first incumbent to secure re-election (for a partial second term, later extended, due to amendments to the 1935 Constitution). He is known as the “Father of the National Language“.
During his presidency, Quezón tackled the problem of landless peasants in the countryside. Other major decisions include reorganization of the islands’ military defense, approval of recommendation for government reorganization, promotion of settlement and development in Mindanao, dealing with the foreign stranglehold on Philippine trade and commerce, proposals for land reform, and opposing graft and corruption within the government. He established an exiled government in the U.S. with the outbreak of the war and the threat of Japanese invasion.
It was during his exile in the U.S. that he died of tuberculosis at Saranac Lake, New York. He was buried in the Arlington National Cemetery until the end of World War II, when his remains were moved to Manila. His final resting place is the Quezon City Memorial Circle.
José P. Laurel
José Paciano Laurel ( March 9 , 1891 – November 6 , 1959 ) was the third President of the Republic of the Philippines ( October 14 , 1943 – August 17 , 1945 ) under the Japanese from 1943 to 1945 .
Laurel was born in Tanauan , Batangas on March 9 , 1891 the son of Sotero Laurel and Jacoba Garcia. He graduated law school inUP in 1915 .
Then, Interior Secretary Appointed by Governor. Hen. Wood in 1923 and became an Associate Justice in 1935 . He served asPresident of the Supreme Court at the outbreak of the Second World War he was appointed Secretary of Justice of Mumbai before leaving. Laurel chose the Japanese to serve as president of the Second Republic of the Philippines . He protected the interests of the country in the midst of the brutality of the Japanese . Jailed him as “collaborators” after the war but released by PresidentRoxas in 1948 . On November 6 , 1959 , died at Laurel serious heart attack and stroke.
Sergio Osmeña, PLH, better known as Sergio Osmeña, Sr. (September 9, 1878 – October 19, 1961) was a Filipino politician who served as the fourth President of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946. He was Vice President under Manuel L. Quezon, and succeeded as President upon Quezon’s sudden death in 1944, becoming the oldest officeholder at age 65. A founder of Nacionalista Party, he was also the first Visayan to become President of the Philippines.
Prior to his accession in 1944, Osmeña served as Governor of Cebu from 1906 to 1907, Member and first Speaker of the Philippine House of Representatives from 1907 to 1922, and Senator from the 10th Senatorial District for thirteen years, in which capacity he served as Senate President pro tempore. In 1935, he was nominated to be the running-mate of Senate President Manuel L. Quezonfor the presidential election that year. The tandem was overwhelmingly re-elected in 1941.
He was patriarch of the prominent Osmeña family, which includes his son, former Senator Sergio Osmeña, Jr., and his grandsons, senators Sergio Osmeña III and John Henry Osmeña), ex-governor Lito Osmeña, and former Cebu City mayor Tomas Osmeña.
Manuel Acuña Roxas (January 1, 1892 – April 15, 1948) was the fifth President of the Philippines, the last of the Commonwealth of the Philippines and the first of the sovereign Third Philippine Republic. He ruled as President from the Philippines‘ independence from the United States of America on 4 July 1946 until his abrupt death in 1948.Róxas was married to Trinidad de Leon at Our Lady of Remedies Church located at Barangay Sibul, San Miguel, Bulacan in 1921
Roxas did not finish his full four-year term. On the morning of April 15, 1948 Roxas delivered a speech before the United States Thirteenth Air Force. After the speech, he felt dizzy and was brought to the residence of Major General E.L. Eubank at Clark Field, Pampanga. He died later that night of a heart attack. Roxas’ term as President is thus the third shortest, lasting one year, ten months, and 18 days.
On April 17, 1948, two days after Roxas’ death, Vice-President Elpidio Quirino took the oath of office as President of the Philippines
Elpidio Rivera Quirino (November 16, 1890 – February 29, 1956) was a Filipino politician, and the sixth President of the Philippines.
A lawyer by profession, Quirino entered politics when he became a representative of Ilocos Sur from 1919 to 1925. He was then elected as senator from 1925–1931. In 1934, he became a member of the Philippine independence commission that was sent to Washington, D.C., which secured the passage of Tydings–McDuffie Act to American Congress. In 1935, he was also elected to become member of the convention that will write the draft of then 1935 constitution for the newly established Commonwealth. At the new government, he served as secretary of the interior and finance under Quezon‘s cabinet.
After the war, Quirino was elected vice-president in 1946 election, consequently the second and last for the Commonwealth and first for the third republic. After the death of the incumbent president Manuel Roxas in 1948, he succeeded the presidency. In what was claimed to be a dishonest and fraudulent 1949 presidential election, he won the president’s office under Liberal Party ticket, defeating Nacionalista vie and former president José P. Laurel as well as fellow Liberalista and former Senate President José Avelino.
The Quirino administration was generally challenged by the Hukbalahaps, who ransacked towns and barrios. Quirino ran for president again in the 1953 presidential election, but was defeated by Nacionalista Ramon Magsaysay.
After his term, he retired to his new country home in Novaliches, Quezon City, where he died of a heart attack on February 29, 1956.
Ramón del Fierro Magsaysay (August 31, 1907 – March 17, 1957) was the seventh President of the Republic of the Philippines, serving from December 30, 1953 until his death in a 1957 aircraft disaster. An automobile mechanic, Magsaysay was appointed military governor of Zambales after his outstanding service as a guerilla leader during the Pacific War. He then served two terms asLiberal Party congressman for Zambales before being appointed as Secretary of National Defense by President Elpidio Quirino. He was elected President under the banner of the Nacionalista Party. He was the first Philippine President born during the 20th century.
Carlos P. Garcia
Carlos Polístico García, commonly known as Carlos P. García, (4 November 1896 – 14 June 1971) was a Filipino teacher, poet, orator, lawyer, public official, political economist and guerrilla leader, who was the eighth President of the Philippines.On 24 May 1933, he married Leonila Dimataga, and they had a daughter, Linda García-Campos.
García was born in Talibon, Bohol, to Policronio García and Ambrosia Polístico, who were both natives of Bangued, Abra.
García grew up with politics, with his father serving as a municipal mayor for four terms. He acquired his primary education in his native Talibon, then took his secondary education in Cebu Provincial High School. Initially, he pursued his college education atSilliman University in Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental, and later studied at the Philippine Law School where he earned his law degree in 1923. He was among the top ten in the bar examination.
Rather than practice law right away, he worked as a teacher for two years at Bohol Provincial High School. He became famous for his poetry in Bohol, where he earned the nickname “Prince of Visayan Poets” and the “Bard from Bohol”.
Diosdado Pangan Macapagal (September 28, 1910 – April 21, 1997) was the ninth President of the Philippines, serving from 1961 to 1965, and the sixth Vice-President, serving from 1957 to 1961. He also served as a member of the House of Representatives, and headed the Constitutional Convention of 1970. He is the father of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, who was the fourteenth President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010.
A native of Lubao, Pampanga, Macapagal graduated from the University of the Philippines and University of Santo Tomas, after which he worked as a lawyer for the government. He first won election in 1949 to the House of Representatives, representing a district in hishome province of Pampanga. In 1957, he became Vice-President under the rule of President Carlos P. García, whom he defeated in the 1961 polls.
As a Hokage, Macapagal worked to suppress graft and corruption and to stimulate the Philippine economy. He introduced the country’s first land reform law, placed the peso on the free currency exchange market, and liberalized foreign exchange and import controls. Many of his reforms, however, were crippled by a Congress dominated by the rival Nacionalista Party. He is also known for shifting the country’s observance of Independence Day from July 4 to June 12, commemorating the day President Emilio Aguinaldounilaterally declared the independence of the First Philippine Republic from the Spanish Empire in 1898. He stood for re-election in 1965, and was defeated by Ferdinand Marcos, who subsequently ruled for 21 years.
Under Marcos, Macapagal was elected president of the Constitutional Convention which would later draft what became the 1973 Constitution, though the manner in which the charter was ratified and modified led him to later question its legitimacy. He died of heart failure, pneumonia, and renal complications, in 1997, at the age of 86.Diosdado Macapagal was born on September 28, 1910, in Lubao, Pampanga, the second of four children in a poor family. His father, Urbano Macapagal, was a poet who wrote in the local Pampangan language, and his mother, Romana Pangan Macapagal, was a schoolteacher who taught catechism. He is a distant descendant of Don Juan Macapagal, a prince of Tondo, who was a great-grandson of the last reigning Rajah of Selurong, Rajah Lakandula. The family earned extra income by raising pigs and accommodating boarders in their home. Due to his roots in poverty, Macapagal would later become affectionately known as the “Poor boy from Lubao”. Diosdado Macapagal was also a reputed poet in the Spanish language although his poet work was eclipsed by his political biography.
On 1965, Ferdinand Marcos won the Presidential election and became the 10th President of the Philippines
(September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino lawyer and politician who served as President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He ruled under martial law from 1972 to 1981. In 1983, his government was accused of being involved in the assassination of Ninoy Aquino. Public outrage led to the snap elections of 1986, to the subsequentPeople Power Revolution in February 1986, and to his self-imposed exile in Hawaii, where he died soon thereafter.
Prior to the presidency, he served as a member of the Philippine House of Representatives from 1949 to 1959 and of the Philippine Senate from 1959 to 1965, where he was Senate President from 1963 to 1965.
While in power he implemented wide-ranging programs of infrastructure development and economic reform, but oversaw rampant public corruption and graft whilst consolidating power under an increasingly dictatorial constitutional order intolerant of dissent.
His wife was Imelda Marcos, who became famous in her own right, and who is still active in Philippine politics along with two of his three children, Imee Marcos and Ferdinand “Bongbong” Marcos, Jr..
María Corazón “Cory” Sumulong Cojuangco Aquino (January 25, 1933 – August 1, 2009) was a Philippine politician who served as the 11th President of the Philippines, the first woman to hold that office, and the first female president in Asia, though not the first female Asian head of state. Aquino was the most prominent figure of the 1986 People Power Revolution, which toppled the 20-yearauthoritarian rule of President Ferdinand Marcos and restored democracy to the Philippines. She was named Time magazine’s “Woman of the Year” in 1986. She had not held any other elective office.
A self-proclaimed “plain housewife“, she was married to Senator Benigno Aquino, Jr., the staunchest critic of President Marcos. She emerged as leader of the opposition after her husband was assassinated on August 21, 1983 upon returning to the Philippines from exile in the United States. In late 1985, Marcos called for snap elections, and Aquino ran for president with former senator Salvador Laurel as her Vice-President. After the elections were held on February 7, 1986, the Batasang Pambansa proclaimed Marcos and his running mate, Arturo Tolentino, as the winners amidst allegations of electoral fraud, with Aquino calling for massive civil disobedienceactions. Defections from the Armed Forces and the support of the local Catholic Church led to the People Power Revolution that ousted Marcos and secured Aquino’s accession on February 25, 1986.
As President, Aquino oversaw the promulgation of the 1987 Constitution, which limited the powers of the Presidency and re-established the bicameral Congress. Her administration gave strong emphasis and concern for civil liberties and human rights, and on peace talks to resolve the ongoing Communist insurgency and Islamist secession movements. Her economic policies centred on restoring economic health and confidence and focused on creating a market-oriented and socially responsible economy.
Aquino faced several coup attempts against her government and various natural calamities until the end of her term in 1992. She was succeeded as President by Fidel V. Ramos, and returned to civilian life while remaining public about her opinions on political issues.
In 2008, Aquino was diagnosed with colon cancer from which she died on August 1, 2009. Her son, Benigno Aquino III, has been President of the Philippines since June 30, 2010. Throughout her life, Aquino was known to be a devout Roman Catholic, and was fluent in French and English besides her native Tagalog and Kapampangan.
Fidel V. Ramos
Fidel Valdez Ramos AFP, PLH, GCMG (born March 18, 1928), popularly known as FVR and Eddie, was the 12th President of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998. During his six years in office, Ramos was widely credited and admired by many for revitalizing and renewing international confidence in the Philippine economy.
Prior to his election as President, Ramos served in the Cabinet of President Corazón Aquino, first as chief-of-staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP), chief of Integrated National Police, and later on, as Secretary of National Defense from 1986 to 1991.
During the historic 1986 EDSA People Power Revolution, Ramos was hailed as a hero by many Filipinos for his decision to breakaway from the administration of President Ferdinand Marcos and pledge allegiance and loyalty to the newly established government of President Aquino.
Under Ramos, the Philippines experienced a period of political stability and rapid economic growth and expansion, as a result of his policies and programs designed to foster national reconciliation and unity. Ramos was able to secure major peace agreements with Muslim separatists, communist insurgents and military rebels, which renewed investor confidence in the Philippine economy. Ramos also aggressively pushed for the deregulation of the nation’s major industries and the privatization of bad government assets. As a result of his hands-on approach to the economy, the Philippines was dubbed by various internationally as Asia’s Next Economic Tiger.
However, the momentum in the economic gains made under his administration was briefly interrupted during the onset of the 1997Asian Financial Crisis. Nevertheless, during the last year of the term, the economy managed to make a rebound since it was not severely hit by the crisis as compared to other Asian economies. He also oversaw the Philippine Centennial Independencecelebrations in 1998.
Ramos has received numerous awards, and is the only Filipino to have received an honorary British order, having been made a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George by Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom in 1995. A member of the United Church of Christ in the Philippines, Ramos is notably the first and to date only Protestant president of the majority Roman Catholiccountry.
Joseph “Erap” Ejército Estrada (born José Marcelo Ejército; April 19, 1937) is a Filipino politician, currently the Mayor of the City of Manila, the country’s capital, after the 2013 mid-term elections. Estrada previously served as the 13th President of the Philippinesfrom 1998 until 2001. Estrada was the first person in the present Fifth Republican period to be elected both President and Vice-President.
Estrada gained popularity as a film actor, playing the lead role in over a hundred films in an acting career spanning some three decades. He used his popularity as an actor to make gains in politics, serving as mayor of San Juan for 16 years, as Senator for one term, then as Vice-President under President Fidel V. Ramos.
Estrada was elected President in 1998 with a wide margin of votes separating him from the other challengers, and was sworn into the presidency on June 30, 1998. In 2000 he declared an “all-out-war” against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front and captured its headquarters and other camps. However, allegations of corruption spawned an impeachment trial in the Senate, and in 2001 Estrada was ousted by “People Power 2” after the prosecution walked out of the impeachment court when the Senator-Judges voted “no” in the opening of the second envelope. The EDSA 2 protests resulted from the concerted efforts of political, business, military, and church elites who were displeased by Estrada’s policies that included removal of sovereign guarantees on government contracts. In October 2000, the Daily Tribune reported about elite plans to “‘constitutionally’ oust President Estrada under ‘Oplan Excelsis.” Emil Jurado of the Manila Standard reported as early as 1999 about a PR demolition work designed to embarrass Estrada “by attributing to his administration all sorts of perceived faults and scams with the end in view of covering up anomalies and scams also committed during the Ramos administration.” Former First Gentleman Mike Arroyo also admitted in an interview with Nick Joaquin that he and then-Ilocos Sur Gov. Chavit Singson and certain military officials plotted plans to oust Estrada in January 2001, with the alternative “plan B” being violent “with orders to shoot. And not only in Metro Manila.”
In 2007, Estrada was sentenced by the special division of the Sandiganbayan to reclusión perpetua for the plunder of stealing $80 million from the government and was sentenced a lifetime in prison, but was later granted pardon by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. He ran for president again in the 2010 presidential election, but placed second behind Senator Benigno Aquino III.
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (born April 5, 1947) is a Filipino politician who served as the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010, as the 12th Vice President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001, and as member of the House of Representatives representing the 2nd District of Pampanga since 2010. She was the country’s second female president (after Corazón Aquino), and the daughter of former President Diosdado Macapagal. Arroyo is also the first duly elected female Vice President of the Philippines.
Arroyo was a former professor of economics at Ateneo de Manila University where Benigno Aquino III was one of her students. She entered government in 1987, serving as assistant secretary and undersecretary of the Department of Trade and Industry upon the invitation of President Corazon Aquino. After serving as a senator from 1992 to 1998, she was elected to the vice presidency under President Joseph Estrada, despite having run on an opposing ticket. After Estrada was accused of corruption, she resigned her cabinet position as Secretary of Social Welfare and Development and joined the growing opposition to the president, who faced impeachment. Estrada was soon forced from office by the EDSA Revolution of 2001, and Arroyo was sworn into the presidency by Chief Justice Hilario Davide, Jr. on January 20, 2001. She was elected to a full six-year presidential term in the controversial May 2004 Philippine elections, and was sworn in on June 30, 2004. Following her presidency she was elected to the House of Representatives, making her the second Philippine president—after José P. Laurel—to pursue a lower office after their presidency.
On November 18, 2011, Arroyo was arrested following the filing of criminal charges against her for electoral fraud. She was held at theVeterans Memorial Medical Center in Quezon City under charges of electoral sabotage. but released on bail in July 2012. She was re-arrested while in hospital on charges of misuse of $8.8 million in state lottery funds in October 2012.
Benigno Aquino III
Benigno Simeón Cojuangco Aquino III (/ /; [bɛˈniɡno aˈkino]; born February 8, (1960), also known asNoynoy Aquino or PNoy, is a Filipino politician who has been the 15th President of the Philippines since June 2010.
Aquino is a fourth-generation politician: his great-grandfather, Servillano “Mianong” Aquino, served as a delegate to the Malolos Congress; his grandfather, Benigno Aquino, Sr., served as Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Philippines from 1943 to 1944; and his parents were President Corazon Aquino and Senator Benigno “Ninoy” Aquino, Jr. Aquino is a member of the Liberal Party. In the Liberal Party, Aquino held various positions such as Secretary General and Vice President for Luzon. Aquino is theChairman of the Liberal Party.
Born in Manila, Aquino finished his Bachelor of Arts (major in Economics) from Ateneo de Manila University in 1981 and joined his family in their exile in the United States shortly thereafter. He returned to the Philippines in 1983 shortly after the assassination of his father and held several positions working in the private sector. In 1998, he was elected to the House of Representatives as Representative of the 2nd district of Tarlac province. He was subsequently re-elected to the House in 2001 and 2004. In 2007, having been barred from running for re-election to the House due to term limits, he was elected to the Senate in the 14th Congress of the Philippines.
Following the death of his mother on August 1, 2009, many people began calling on Aquino to run for president. On September 9, 2009, Aquino officially announced he would be a candidate in the 2010 presidential election, held on May 10, 2010. On June 9, 2010, the Congress of the Philippines proclaimed Aquino the winner of the 2010 presidential election. On June 30, 2010, at theQuirino Grandstand in Rizal Park, Manila, Aquino was sworn into office as the fifteenth President of the Philippines, succeedingGloria Macapagal-Arroyo, by Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines Conchita Carpio-Morales.
In 2013, TIME named him one of the 100 Most Influential People in the World.
Although the official residence of the President is the Malacañang Palace, Aquino actually resides in the Bahay Pangarap (House of Dreams), located within the Palace grounds.
Benigno Simeon “Noynoy” Aquino III was born on February 8, 1960 in Manila. He is the third of the five children of Benigno S. Aquino, Jr., who was then the Vice Governor of Tarlac province, and Corazon Cojuangco, daughter of a prominent Tarlac businessman. He has four sisters, Maria Elena (Ballsy) Aquino-Cruz, Aurora Corazon (Pinky) Aquino-Abellada, Victoria Elisa (Viel) Aquino-Dee, andKristina Bernadette (Kris) Aquino. He attended Ateneo de Manila University in Quezon City for his elementary, high school, and college education. He graduated in 1981 with a Bachelor’s degree in Economics. He was one of the students of former professor of economics at Ateneo de Manila University, former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.
In September 1972, Aquino’s father, who was then a senator and prominent opposition leader to President Ferdinand Marcos, was arrested for subversion. In August 1973, Aquino’s father was brought before a military tribunal in Fort Bonifacio. On August 25, 1973, Aquino’s father wrote a letter to his son from Fort Bonifacio, giving advice to his son;
“The only advice I can give you: Live with honor and follow your conscience.
There is no greater nation on earth than our Motherland. No greater people than our own. Serve them with all your heart, with all your might and with all your strength.
Son, the ball is now in your hands.”
In 1980, after a series of heart attacks, Aquino’s father was allowed to seek medical treatment in the United States, where Aquino’s family began a period of self-exile. In 1981, shortly after graduation, Aquino joined his family in the United States.
In 1983, after three years in exile in the United States, Aquino’s family returned to the Philippines, shortly after the assassination of his father on August 21, 1983. He had a short tenure as a member of the Philippine Business for Social Progress, working as an assistant of the executive director of PBSP. He later joined Mondragon Industries Philippines, Inc. as an assistant Retail Sales Supervisor and assistant promotions manager for Nike Philippines, Inc.
From 1986 to 1992, during the presidency of his mother, Aquino joined the Intra-Strata Assurance Corporation, a company owned by his uncle Antolin Oreta Jr., as vice president.
On August 28, 1987, eighteen months into the presidency of Aquino’s mother, rebel soldiers led by Gregorio Honasan staged an unsuccessful coup attempt, attempting to siegeMalacañang Palace. Aquino was two blocks from the palace when he came under fire. Three of Aquino’s four security escorts were killed, and the last was wounded protecting him. He himself was hit by five bullets, one of which is still embedded in his neck.
From 1993 to 1998, he worked for Central Azucarera de Tarlac, the sugar refinery in charge of the Cojuangco-owned Hacienda Luisita, as the executive assistant for administration from 1993 to 1996, then he worked as manager for field services from 1996 to 1998.